Insegnamento
PLANT BREEDING
AVP5073598, A.A. 2016/17

Principali informazioni sull'insegnamento
Corso di studio Corso di laurea magistrale in
SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE - AGRICOLTURA SOSTENIBILE
AV2293, ordinamento 2016/17, A.A. 2016/17
1140158
Curriculum Percorso Comune
Crediti formativi 8.0
Denominazione inglese PLANT BREEDING
Sito della struttura didattica http://www.agrariamedicinaveterinaria.unipd.it
Dipartimento di riferimento Dipartimento Agronomia Animali Alimenti Risorse Naturali e Ambiente (DAFNAE)
Sito E-Learning https://elearning.unipd.it/scuolaamv/course/view.php?idnumber=2016-AV2293-000ZZ-2016-AVP5073598-N0
Obbligo di frequenza No
Lingua di erogazione INGLESE
Sede LEGNARO (PD)

Docenti
Responsabile GIANNI BARCACCIA AGR/07

Dettaglio crediti formativi
Tipologia Ambito Disciplinare Settore Scientifico-Disciplinare Crediti
CARATTERIZZANTE Discipline del miglioramento genetico AGR/07 8.0

Modalità di erogazione
Periodo di erogazione Secondo semestre
Anno di corso I Anno
Modalità di erogazione frontale

Organizzazione della didattica
Tipo ore Crediti Ore di
Corso
Ore Studio
Individuale
Turni
ESERCITAZIONE 1.0 8 17.0 Nessun turno
LABORATORIO 1.0 8 17.0 Nessun turno
LEZIONE 6.0 48 102.0 Nessun turno

Calendario
Inizio attività didattiche 27/02/2017
Fine attività didattiche 09/06/2017

Commissioni d'esame
Commissione Dal Al Membri
2  Commissione a.a. 2017/18: fino al 23/02/2018 01/12/2017 23/02/2018 BARCACCIA GIANNI (Presidente)
LUCCHIN MARGHERITA (Membro Effettivo)
VANNOZZI ALESSANDRO (Supplente)
VAROTTO SERENA (Supplente)
1 Commissione a.a. 2016/17 01/12/2016 30/11/2017 BARCACCIA GIANNI (Presidente)
LUCCHIN MARGHERITA (Membro Effettivo)
VANNOZZI ALESSANDRO (Supplente)
VAROTTO SERENA (Supplente)

Syllabus
Prerequisiti: The students attending this course have to own good knowledge of basic genetics, plant biology and biochemistry, statistics and crop production. Such a knowledge is provided by the courses of the previous three-years degree
Conoscenze e abilita' da acquisire: The student is expected to gain basic principles and concepts of conventional breeding schemes and methods, along with molecular tools useful not only for improving crop plant populations but also for developing and identifying superior crop plant varieties. Since modern plant breeding is firmly rooted in the science of genetics, the first part of the course will deal with the genetic control of both qualitative (Mendelian traits) and quantitative traits (QTLs), genetic bases of reproductive systems and barriers (i.e. self-incompatibility, male-sterility and apomixis), and genetic structure of populations. The second part of the course will focus on theoretical aspects and applied methods for developing synthetic varieties and monogenotypic varieties, such as clones, pure lines, and heterotic F1 hybrids, making a distinction between selfing and outcrossing species. Genomics applied to marker-assisted selection (MAS) of crop plant species will be also presented, along with methods for the constitution of GM varieties, including the use of molecular markers for DUS testing and for genetic traceability of their food products and derivatives.
Modalita' di esame: There will be two underway written texts in addition to the final oral exam
Criteri di valutazione: The GRADING POLICY will be the following: 30% for the first written text, 30% for the second written text and 40% for the final oral exam
Contenuti: HEREDITY OF MENDELIAN AND POLIGENIC TRAITS
Genetics of qualitative traits: dominant and recessive genetic factors and morphological descriptors; Basic genetics and inheritance models in diploid and polyploid species; Constitution modes and types of segregating populations; Influence of genetic interactions and environmental factors on phenotypic variation; Genetics of quantitative traits: additive genetic effects and epistasis; Determination of the polygenes controlling the expression of quantitative traits; Modifier genes, penetrance and expressivity concepts; Heritability: broad sense heritability and narrow sense heritability.

GENETICS OF PLANT REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEMS AND BARRIERS
Reproductive biology: sporogenesis, gametogenesis and embryogenesis in plants; Classification of plant reproduction systems: reproduction mode and union system; Mechanisms that determine selfing and outcrossing in Angiosperms; Self-incompatibility (SI): sporophytic and gametophytic systems; Male-sterility (ms): cytoplasmic, nuclear and cytoplasmic-genetic male-sterility; Unreduced gametes: cytological mechanisms and genetic consequences; Polyploidization: meiotic and mitotic mechanisms determining polyploidy; Apomixis: apomeiosis and parthenogenesis; Molecular progeny tests for the determination of the mode of reproduction in plants.

PLANT POPULATION GENETICS
Plant genetic resources: ecotypes, landraces and cultivars; Domestication and evolution of the main crop plant specie; Genetic diversity and gene flow in natural populations; Genetic structure of populations in agamically propagating and apomictically reproducing species; Genetic structure of populations in self-pollinated (selfing) species; Genetic structure of populations in open-pollinated (outcrossing) species; Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium: theoretical aspects and practical applications; Genetics of inbreeding depression and heterotic vigour expression (heterosis);

BREEDING METHODS IN SELFING SPECIES
Main goals of plant breeding programs: the breeder and the ideal biotype; Strategies of plant breeding: selection within natural and experimental populations; Methods and schemes for breeding and developing news varieties in self-pollinated species: pure lines and F1 hybrids; multiline varieties; Selection for monogenic and quantitative traits; Case studies: selection for resistance or tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses.

BREEDING METHODS IN OUTCROSSING SPECIES
Main goals of plant breeding programs; Strategies of plant breeding: selection within natural and experimental populations; Methods and schemes for breeding and developing news varieties in open-pollinated species: Synthetics and F1 hybrids; Progeny tests: estimation of GCA and SCA indexes; Use of male-sterility for the commercial production of hybrid seeds; Conservative selection and large-scale production of commercial seeds.

MARKER-ASSISTED BREEDING AND GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS
Molecular marker systems: methods and applications of DNA fingerprinting, genotyping, haplotyping and barcoding; Mapping Mendelian genes and QTLs: marker-assisted selection (MAS); Marker-assisted breeding (MAB): basic concepts and applications; DUS testing of plant varieties using molecular markers; Methods for developing genetically modified plant and transgenic varieties; Genetic identification of agri-food products; Patents, plant variety protection acts and plant breeder’s rights.
Attivita' di apprendimento previste e metodologie di insegnamento: The course will include both theoretical and applied lectures in the classrooms, plus a few practice activities in the laboratory of biotechnologies. The aim is to give students the knowledge to evaluate and utilize for selection, the natural and artificial plant genetic variability. The students will be trained to acquire competence to plan breeding strategies and to select and run the most suitable schemes for the constitution of new crop varieties by combining conventional breeding methods with biotechnological tools. Students will be trained to gain competence for managing processes of genetic identification of plant varieties and genetic authentication of their food products along the productive chain
Eventuali indicazioni sui materiali di studio: The material used for the course (i.e. PowerPoint presentations) will be made available to students through the Moodle platform of the School at
https://elearning.unipd.it/scuolaamv/login/index.php
Testi di riferimento:
  • Acquaah, George, Principles of plant genetics and breeding (2nd Ed.).. Oxford: Blackwell, 2012. Cerca nel catalogo
  • Borem A. Fritsche-Neto R, Biotechnology and Plant Breeding. --: Elsevier, 2014.
  • Newbury H.J., Plant Molecular Breeding. --: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009.
  • Nagata T., Lorz H. and Widholm J.M., Molecular Marker Systems in Plant Breeding and Crop Improvement. --: Springer, 2008.